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Deductive & inductive reasoning test

inductive reasoning test

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The deductive or inductive reasoning test is a popular part in aptitude tests. But what is actually the differece between the two and how you can prepare yourself successfully for this test part?

The difference between deduction and induction is simple: they are two opposite methods used in logical reasoning.

In many aptitude tests, inductions and deductions are tested under the term “Recognize implications”.

What does deductive reasoning mean?

Deduction (Latin deductio “to lead away, to continue, to derive”) is by definition a method of drawing certain conclusions for individual cases from general statements (theory). Thus, in deduction one always goes from the general to the particular. Some terms used interchangeably with deduction are derivation, conclusion, consequence, consequence, derivation, and judgment.

An example of deduction:

Rule: Everyone has a birthday.

Case study: Albert Einstein is a human being.

Deduction/derivation/result: Albert Einstein has a birthday.

What is the method of deduction?

Sherlock Holmes is considered a master of observation and logic. Holmes often uses deduction to reach his startling conclusions. Here is an example for the derivation of Sherlock Holmes using the methods of deduction:

Rules: People with big brains are smarter than others (old prejudice). People with a bigger hat have a bigger head. People with bigger heads have bigger brains.

Individual case: Man XY is wearing a large hat.

Result: The man XY must be intelligent.

What exercises are there for deduction?

Reading books by Sherlock Holmes is certainly good practice for drawing conclusions from certain observations. This literature often describes in detail which statements can be derived from observations. How we behave, what we say and how we say something can reveal a lot about us. Observing people and drawing certain conclusions based on their behavior and the way they dress is good practice for deduction.

Here are some examples of deductive reasoning:

Rule: People who put on make-up care about their looks.

Individual case: A blonde on the bus who has put on heavy make-up.

Result: The blonde on the bus cares about her looks.

Rule: People who speak slowly are melancholic or mentally unstable.

Individual case: The work colleague talks to me very slowly.

Result: The work colleague is melancholic or mentally unstable.

What does inductive reasoning mean?

In contrast to deduction, general rules are deduced from an individual case in induction (Latin inducere “to lead in”). Synonyms for induction are generalization, derivation, and consequence.

An example of induction

Individual cases: Albert Einstein is a human being and Marie Curie is a human being.

Result: Marie Curie and Albert Einstein have a birthday.

Induction/Rule: All people have a birthday.

In order to complete this series, one could also draw conclusions about the individual case from the result and the rule. This is called abduction:

Result: Marie Curie and Albert Einstein have a birthday.

Rule: Everyone has a birthday.

Individual case: Albert Einstein is a human being.

What other examples of deduction and induction are there?

Examples of deductive reasoning:

Rule: Fish need oxygen.

Individual case: The clown fish is a fish.

Result: The clownfish needs oxygen.

Rule: All cats are afraid of water.

Individual case: My pet is a cat.

Result: My pet is afraid of water.

Examples of inductive reasoning:

Individual case: my car won’t start.

Result: My car’s battery is dead.

Rule: Cars with a dead battery will not start.

Individual case: My grandmother is mortal.

Result: My grandma is human.

Rule: Humans are mortal.

Practise for your inductive reasoning test

You have to take an aptitude test and want to prepare yourself perfectly for test areas such as inductive reasoning, logic or memory? Then you should definitely take a look at our interactive online test trainer. This contains numerous exercises with detailed solutions for all relevant disciplines.

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